Particles Born In A Black Hole’s Hostile Winds

The centers of our Universe’s myriad galaxies rage with brilliant, roiling fires that hide, within their blinding glare, the darkest of hearts. These hearts of darkness are supermassive black holes, and they wait in sinister secret for their dinner–screaming, shredded stars; doomed, wandering clouds of gas; and anything else that is unfortunate enough to travel too close to where these cosmic beasts lurk–lost as they are in the enveloping brilliance of a surrounding swirling, whirling accretion disk of incandescent gas. Many mysteries surround these strange beasts, inhabiting the Universe’s exotic zoo populated by some undeniably bizarre entities. In January 2018, a team of scientists proposed a new theory that may have solved one of them–the puzzling origins of molecules, dancing within destructive cosmic outflows, that blow around in the raging winds powered by these supermassive beasts. The existence of large numbers of these molecules has puzzled astronomers ever since they were first discovered more than a decade ago–the question is how could anything survive the extreme heat of these energetic outflows?

In 1916, Karl Schwarzschild derived the first modern solution of the Theory of General Relativity that could describe a black hole. But its definition as a region of space, from which nothing could ever return, was not truly understood for another forty years. For decades, black holes were considered to be a mere mathematical quirk, and it was not until the 1960s that theoretical studies revealed that black holes truly are a generic prediction of General Relativity.

Molecules trace out for astronomers the most frigid regions of space. However, the enormous black holes inhabiting the hearts of galaxies are far from cold, and are the most energetic phenomena in the Cosmos. Indeed, finding these molecules in black hole winds is a little like detecting ice in a camp fire. The new theory, proposed by researchers in Northwestern University’s Center for Interdisciplinary Research and Exploration in Astrophysics (CIERA) in Evanston, Illinois, now offers a solution to this mystery. The theory predicts that these molecules are not survivors of these searing-hot and raging winds at all, but are instead newborn molecules that have formed in these fierce winds, and now display some very unique attributes. These unique properties enable the newborn molecules to adapt and thrive in the extremely hostile environment of the supermassive beast’s raging, roaring, and searing-hot winds.

A paper describing this new theory, published in the March 1, 2018 issue of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) in London, is the work of Lindheimer post-doctoral fellow, Dr. Alexander Richings. Dr. Richings is responsible for developing the computer code that, for the first time, modeled the detailed chemical processes that occur in interstellar gas that is accelerated by the radiation being emitted during the growth of supermassive black holes. Dr. Claude-Andre Faucher-Giguere, who is a researcher studying galaxy formation and evolution as an assistant professor in Northwestern’s Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences, is a study co-author.

“When a black hole wind sweeps up gas from its host galaxy, the gas is heated to high temperatures, which destroy any existing molecules. By modeling the molecular chemistry in computer simulations of black hole winds, we found that this swept-up gas can subsequently cool and form new molecules,” Dr. Richings explained in a January 30, 2018 Northwestern University Press Release.

Abandon Hope All Ye Who Enter Here

As astronomers look deeper and deeper into Space, they are also staring further and further back in Time. There is no way to locate an object in Space, without also locating it in Time. Hence, the term Spacetime. The more distant a luminous object is in Space, the longer it has taken its streaming light to at last reach telescopes on Earth. No known signal in the Universe can travel faster than light in a vacuum, and the light that travels out from very remote objects in the distant Universe can travel to us no faster than this universal speed limit will permit.

In astronomy, Time and Distance, as well as the wavelength of light–at which a remote object is being observed–are all inextricably linked to one another. Light travels at a finite speed, and as a result takes a finite amount of time to reach us. This means that remote objects are observed the way they were in the distant past, and they look exactly the same as they did very long ago–when they first sent their light streaming out into the Cosmos. Astronomers use what is called the redshift (z) to determine how ancient and how far away an incandescent celestial object is. The measurable quantity of 1 + z is the factor by which the Universe has expanded–between that ancient era when a distant object first sent its light out into the space between galaxies, and the present time, when it is finally being observed. It is also the factor by which the wavelength of light, currently wandering towards us, has been stretched by the expansion of Spacetime. The redshift is the shift of a shining object’s spectrum towards increasingly longer and longer electromagnetic wavelengths, as it speeds away from us–or, towards the red end of the electromagnetic spectrum.

The first black holes to form in the Cosmos were both creators and destroyers. These primeval black holes were gluttons, readily devouring anything unlucky enough to travel too close to where they lay hidden. However, the good news is that these black holes formed jets of high-energy particles and radiation as a result of their messy table manners. The jets produced by a black hole can be millions of light-years in length, and many astronomers propose that they are the trigger that gives rise to successive generations of sparkling new baby stars. This means that the first generation of black holes were the seeds of what would eventually grow into the galaxies that host them. These very ancient black holes were essential to galactic evolution–and they still are. In the long run, these primeval black holes can be considered responsible for the birth of our Sun, our planet, and our very lives.

Supermassive black holes and their surrounding accretion disks can be, at least, as vast as our entire Solar System. These gravitational beasts are characterized by their enormous weight, insatiable appetites, and sloppy eating habits–attempting to swallow more than they can chew. When their outside sources of energy ran out, the brilliant quasars that inhabited the ancient Cosmos switched off. It is generally thought that most galaxies experienced a quasar phase in the primordial Cosmos, and that they currently host a relic of their flamming youth in their secretive hearts, in the form of a mostly dormant supermassive black hole. The supermassive black holes that populate the Universe today display only a shadow of their former youthful greed.

Our own Milky Way Galaxy hosts its own resident, dormant dark-hearted beast. As supermassive black holes go, our Galaxy’s central monster is a small one. Our Milky Way’s heart of darkness is “only” millions of solar-masses–and not the billions of solar-masses displayed by many others of its bizarre kind. Long ago, our Galaxy’s elderly central black hole sent its brilliant light out into intergalactic space as an active, hot, and glaring young quasar. But it is a peaceful old celestial tiger now, except when it occasionally wakes up from its nap to enjoy an infalling buffet of shredded stars, clouds of gas, and other unlucky chunks of doomed material. At this point, our Galaxy’s dark heart goes on a feeding frenzy, greedily swallowing a large helping of celestial wreckage that traveled too close to its waiting maw. Our Milky Way’s supermassive black hole is named Sagittarius A*, or Sgr A*, for short (pronounced Saj-a-star), except when it awakens from its slumber to feast on its tragic prey with the insatiable greed of its youth–when it was a flaming quasar dazzling the ancient Universe.

In the 18th century, John Michell and Pierre-Simon Laplace made the first prediction that the Cosmos could play host to gravitational monstrosities like black holes. Albert Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity (1915) went on to predict the existence of weird entities possessing such deep gravitational wells that nothing, nothing, nothing at all–not even light–could escape from their gravitational clutches once they were captured. However, the concept of the real existence of such monstrosities seemed so outrageous at the time that even Einstein rejected the concept–even though his own calculations were correct when they showed otherwise.

Particles Born In A Black Hole’s Hostile Winds

The new theory, proposed by Northwestern University scientists, answers certain nagging questions raised by earlier observations conducted by researchers, using several cutting-edge astronomical observatories. These observatories include the Herschel Space Observatory and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), a powerful radio telescope located in Chile.

In 2015, astronomers confirmed that energetic outflows from supermassive black holes, exist in the secretive hearts of most galaxies. These outflows rampage through their galactic hosts, killing literally everything that is unlucky enough to be in their way–while also emitting the food (molecules) that fuel the birth of baby stars. Indeed, these powerful winds are so furious that they are thought to be the trigger behind the formation of “red and dead” elliptical (football-shaped) galaxies, in which no new sparkling baby stars can be born.

Finally, in 2017, astronomers observed swiftly moving stars forming in these ferocious winds–a phenomenon they once thought to be impossible because of the extreme environment of black hole-powered outflows.

New baby stars are born from molecular gas, so Dr. Richings and Dr. Faucher-Giguere’s new theory of molecular formation helps to solve the mystery of new stars forming in winds. It also strengthens earlier predictions that black hole winds destroy molecules when they first crash into one another, but it also predicts that new molecules–including hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and water–can form in the winds as well.

“This is the first time that the molecule formation process has been simulated in full detail, and in our view, it is a very compelling explanation for the observation that molecules are ubiquitous in supermassive black hole winds, which has been one of the major outstanding problems in the field,” Dr. Faucher-Giguere commented in the January 30, 2018 Northwestern University Press Release.

Dr. Richings and Dr. Faucher-Giguere predict that the new molecules formed in the winds are warmer and brighter in infrared radiation compared to pre-existing molecules. That theory will finally be tested when NASA launches the James Webb Space Telescope in the spring of 2019. If this theory is validated, the telescope will be able to map black hole outflows in detail using infrared radiation.

The Village of Friendship

Bourbonnais Illinois is called the Village of Friendship because of its pleasant, neighborly people with their welcoming smiles. Located on the scenic Kankakee River forty miles south of Chicago, Bourbonnais healthcare system is considered among the best in the state; and Bourbonnais’ famous Friendship Festival every June brings visitors from all over the country.

The Kankakee River was originally called the Te-ok-e-kee, which means “wolf”, by the Pottawatomi Indian inhabitants of the area. Later the name changed to Kankakee. In 1679 Cavalier de LaSalle, the celebrated French explorer, visited the region and began trade with Native Americans along the river. In the year 1830 Francois Bourbonnais Sr., an agent for the American Fur Company, arrived in the area to hunt, trap, and trade furs. The town of Bourbonnais Grove was named for this pioneer. In 1832 two more fur traders – Gurdon Hubbard and Noel LeVasseur, settled in Bourbonnais Grove. The next year the United States Congress approved the Treaty of Tippecanoe, which established reservations for Native Americans living in the area. One section was given to Francois Bourbonnais Sr.’s wife Catish; another section was established for Francois Bourbonnais Jr.’s daughter Mawteno (for whom the present town of Manteno is named). Two sections were established for Me-she-ke-te-no, the chief of the Pottawatomi Indians. In 1858 the Maternity BVM Roman Catholic Church was begun; and in 1860 the parish priest brought 3 nuns from Montreal to teach and established the first Bourbonnais Illinois healthcare. Two years later Notre Dame Academy was founded with ten students to provide citizens with higher education. This college continued until 1940 when the campus was purchased by Olivet Nazarene College.

A referendum was held in 1875 to incorporate the town, which then became known as Bourbonnais Village. In May 1875 the first Village Board was elected, with George R. LeTourneau named the first mayor of the Village. George R. LeTourneau’s original home, located at 698 Stratford Drive E., is presently open to the public as a historical museum operated by the Bourbonnais Grove Historical Society. Bourbonnais Village became notorious in 1999 as the site of a devastating train wreck.

Today Bourbonnais Village is a bustling community with over 16,000 citizens. It boasts several championship golf courses, (Aspen Ridge Golf Course and Bon Vivant Country Club); a top-notch Kankakee hospital; and Olivet Nazarene University. The university campus is home to the Chicago Bears Training Camp every July and August, which brings Bear fans from all over the midwest. Besides watching the team practice and shopping in the team pro chop, there are free practice games, player autographs, and football coaching clinics for kids. The Bourbonnais Friendship Festival every June highlights regional traditions and customs. The Festival features wholesome fun entertainments and activities for the whole family, and also raises funds for community projects.

Long Island MacArthur Airport: The Frontier Years

Promise to Ronkonkoma-located Long Island MacArthur Airport, operating in the shadows of Manhattan-proximity La Guardia and JFK International airports, always came in the form of new airline serve, which attempted to achieve profitability and replace that which the discontinued ones failed to. Several ultimately unsuccessful low-cost and upstart carriers left little more than a fading imprint during the past half-decade.

Alaska-based PenAir, for example, seeking to replace the popular, multiple-daily Saab S-340 flights once operated by Business Express and later American Eagle between Long Island and Boston, forged tis own link in July of 2013 with two daily roundtrips operated by the same 34-passenger turboprop. But poor load factors led to its discontinuation a year later.

“We were losing money,” according to David Hall, PenAir’s Chief Operation Officer. “We just weren’t able to get to a consistent operating profit. Unfortunately, it’s a business and that’s how it works.”

Another attempt was made by low-cost, Las Vegas-based Allegiant Air, which inaugurated two weekly roundtrips to Punta Gorda, Florida, in December of 2013. Because their winter sun-seeking draw diminished in the spring, they were discontinued on May 26 of the following year and were intended to be reinstated in December. They never were.

Still another Islip entrant was Elite Airways. Founded, as reflected by its name, in 2016 by airline veterans wishing to establish a higher-quality airline that deviated from the proliferation of no-frills ones, it was certified as a US Part 121 air carrier that offered charter and scheduled service, initially transporting professional and college sports teams, company executives, heads of state, White House press corps, and VIP tour groups. Headquartered in Portland, Maine, but concentrating its maintenance, crew training, sales, and marketing in Melbourne, Florida, it operated charter flights for the first six years of its existence before transitioning to scheduled ones with a minuscule route system, including Melbourne-Portland, Naples (Florida)-Newark, Naples-Portland, Vero Beach (Florida)-Newark, and Rockford (Illinois)-Fort Collins (Colorado) sectors. Its 11-strong Bombardier Region Jet fleet consisted of a single CRJ-100, five CRJ-200s, and five CRJ-700s.

Seeking incentives, such as reduced or waved landing fees, underserved airports with its 50- and 70-seat aircraft, It intended to offer sunbirds air links between New England and Florida, very much the way Northeast had with its 727 “Yellowbirds” in the early-1970s before Delta acquired the carrier. Because of its airline veteran founders, who additionally endeavored to resurrect the higher quality inflight service of the full-fare legacy carriers, it bore similarities with no-longer existent KIWI Airways.

Elite touted itself as “Melbourne’s hometown airline.”

Catalyst to the Long Island MacArthur service was passenger request.

“The funniest thing is that if it wasn’t for people who are originally from Long Island, we wouldn’t be here,” according to Elite Airways president John Pearsall. “On our route we’re presently flying between Newark and Vero Beach… we’ve had more people asking for Islip, Long Island, than any other destination we fly to.”

Twice-weekly service, on Friday and Sunday, to Portland, Maine; Myrtle Beach, South Carolina; and Melbourne, Florida, on which $99.00, $139.00, and $149.00 introductory fares were respectively charged, began on June 17, 2016, amid the typically upbeat comments from Pearsall, who said that he expected “passenger demand to be strong for these new routes” and Islip Town Supervisor Angie Carpenter, who commented, “I am thrilled that the Town of Islip is entering into a partnership with Elite Airways. The addition of Elite to the Long Island MacArthur Airport family will offer both residents and those living in Nassau and Suffolk counties the opportunity to travel to some of the most desirable vacation destinations along the east coast… “

The Portland route continued to Bar Harbor, while that to Melbourne was envisioned as being extended to St. Croix, the US Virgin Islands.

Because of Elite’s presence in Rockford, Illinois, it also contemplated connecting Islip with that Chicago-alternative destination.

“We will be announcing additional destinations as we get more and more familiar with the market here,” Pearsall said.

Another route then under consideration was that to Newport News, Virginia, slated for a March 13, 2017 inauguration. But it was forced to postpone it because of a pending investigation concerning the $3.55 million state funding, intended for infrastructure improvement that was allegedly used to guarantee a loan for a low cost carrier.

Although the controversy did not involve Elite itself, it found it prudent to avoid the airport.

“The Peninsula Airport Commission has been informed that Elite Airways has chosen to temporarily suspend service from the Newport News/Williamsburg International Airport (to Newark) due to the continuing negative and inaccurate headlines, which are preventing the introduction of this brand new property to our community,” according to a statement. “The commission and Elite Airways have a great working relationship as well as support for one another. We look forward to setting a new launch date over the next few months. We feel certain that Elite will find success out of the market, and that our community will enjoy their ‘Elite Class’ of service.”

“It was a difficult decision to postpone the start of service… ,” Pearsall said, “as the Newport News/Williamsburg International Airport has been a great partner to work with. We strongly believe in the market and want to give this service the best possible climate to start in. Postponing the start date will allow both the airline and the airport to be more successful in launching new air service to meet the needs of the community.”

It never did. Nor did it to Rockford. And existing Islip service, considered seasonal, was suspended between January 15 and February 16, 2017, before it was reinstated and severed a second time at the end of April. Although a second reintroduction was slated for July, it was never implemented.

While the service duration of these carriers was brief, one, National Airlines, never even touched down on Long Island soil.

Founded in 2008, the Orlando-based airline operated passenger and cargo flights with Boeing 747-400BCFs as National Air Cargo, but upgraded to public charter service on June 11, 2016 under Department of Transportation (DOT) PC#16-038, whose flights were sold by FlyBranson Travel LLC dba (doing business as) Branson Air Express and operated by National Air Cargo Group, Inc., which itself did business as National Airlines.. Its fleet, a pair of Rolls Royce 40,200 thrust-pound RB.211-535E4-powered Boeing 757-200s configured for 170 (26 first class and 144 coach) and 184 (22 first class and 162 coach) passengers, was intended for a six-destination route system, encompassing Aguadilla, Puerto Rico; Islip, New York; San Juan, Puerto Rico; Sanford-Orlando, Florida; St. John’s, Newfoundland; and Windsor, Ontario.

“At National Airlines we provide an enhanced passenger travel experience air mile after air mile,” it described itself. “Our uncompromising quality, unrelenting service, and unmatched agility set us apart as one of the market’s most elite passenger airlines. We travel farther, move faster, and arrive on time with a focused commitment to safe performance. From the runway to the horizon, National provides a world-class flight experience.

“National is committed to customer care. We believe our passengers are the most precious cargo that an aircraft can carry, and therefore we treat each individual as an elite global VIP. From the dedicated service of our inflight crew to the undeniable beauty of our aircraft, we focus on the details.”

Planned were two weekly departures to Aguadilla as Flight N8 273 on Monday and Friday and four to San Juan as Flight N8 231 on Wednesday, Thursday, Saturday, and Sunday from Islip. All were scheduled to leave at 0900.

“The city of Islip is a wonderful and engaging community.” according to Edward Davidson, National’s president and CEO, “and Long Island MacArthur Airport offers both outstanding service and convenience for our customers. National Airlines believes there is demand for our unique brand of exclusive service of inclusive fares between Islip, San Juan, and Aguadilla.”

“There is a vibrant Puerto Rican community in and around Islip and the entire New York City region,” he continued, “and we believe travelers will find our combination of convenient location and inclusive service very attractive.”

Although it would have constituted the first nonstop service to the Caribbean from the Long Island airport, a lack of suitable equipment precluded its inauguration, resulting in a six-month delay and prompting passenger refunds.

“National has experienced challenges acquiring the very popular Boeing 757 aircraft,” according to a statement issued by Town of Islip Supervisor Angie Carpenter. “Regretfully, this has prompted National to postpone the June 1 launch from Long Island MacArthur Airport to Puerto Rico. However, the Town remains very enthusiastic in welcoming National Airlines t to our airport family.”

It was never given the opportunity to do so.

The airport fared far better with the next carrier to touchdown on its runways, ultra-low-cost, Denver-based Frontier. Announcing nonstop service to Orlando in May of 2017, the airline, an Airbus A320 operator, placed itself in competition with incumbent Southwest to that destination and Florida in general, offering unbundled, $39.00 introductory fares, with additional fees for checked baggage, early boarding, drinks, snacks, and refundability. Based upon advanced bookings, it became the threshold to a significant Islip presence that would entail more nonstop flights and to further destinations than Southwest itself and (then) Elite had offered.

As part of 21 cities it was adding to its existing 61, it was considered the first step in an expansion that would double its size in the next five years.

“Islip is going to be part of the largest expansion in Frontier’s history,” said Scott Fisher, the carrier’s senior director, at a MacArthur news conference.

Because of airport facility availability, a lack of congestion, and the reconstruction of La Guardia, which it also served, Fisher labeled it an “easy airport experience” in the otherwise competitive New York market. “This became a no-brainer in terms of a partnership,” he said.

“We thank you for your confidence in what we know is truly a treasure that has been untapped,” Islip Town Supervisor Angie Carpenter said to Fisher at the news conference. “This is really going to reap a tremendous amount of rewards for everybody.”

Touching down at 0936 after an inbound ferry flight from Orlando on August 16 and given a water cannon salute from MacArthur Airport Fire-Rescue, the single-class Frontier A320-200, designated Flight F9 1779, became the inaugural departure, pushed back from the gate at 1045. It would return as Flight F9 1778 at 2155 that evening.

It became the first in a dual-phase expansion at MacArthur, with service to Fort Myers, Miami, New Orleans, Tampa, and West Palm Beach beginning on October 5, and that to Atlanta, Chicago, Detroit, and Minneapolis the following April 9, 2018. Atlanta and Chicago constituted two of the airport’s once-served, but subsequently lost destinations. They remained the two still most-requested ones.

Yet, because deregulation facilitated the rapid entry and exit of markets, and very low-fare carriers such as Frontier, by necessity, were forced to adopt hairpin triggers when revenue fell below expectations, a significant portion of its Islip route system was modified shortly after disappointing load factors dictated the need to do so.

The first destination to be eliminated, on March 5, was New Orleans.

“We constantly evaluate route performance,” according to Frontier spokesman Richard Oliver III. “Unfortunately, this capacity was better… redeployed elsewhere in our route network.”

Airport Commissioner Shelley LaRose-Arken echoed this reality.

“Unfortunately, one of (Frontier’s) ten routes-New Orleans-did not perform as was anticipated, and therefore adjustments to the schedule are being made to ensure the carrier continues to be successful in the market.”

Like the first in a string of falling dominoes, however, it knocked down Miami and Fort Myers on April 8.

“They just weren’t meeting our expectations,” Oliver III said.

Two more dominoes fell on July 5-namely, Detroit and Minneapolis.

“We haven’t seen the level of demand that we need to see for the routes,” said Daniel Shurz, Frontier’s Vice President of Commercial Operations.

Myrtle Beach and San Juan replaced two of the original destinations, and Fort Myers, Miami, and West Palm Beach were being considered for reinstatement during the winter 2018-2019 season.

Despite the cancellations, Frontier remained committed to Islip, provided load factors ensured adequate profitability.

“We’ve been working together with the airport and they’ve done a good job promoting service,” said Shurz.

Although American Eagle and Southwest remained the long-time anchor tenants, they made tiny adjustments themselves. The former upgraded its 37-passenger de Havilland of Canada DHC-8-100 turboprop to American’s Philadelphia hub to a 45-passenger Embraer ERJ-145 pure-jet, representing a 31-percent capacity increase, while the latter inaugurated one-stop, single-aircraft service to Raleigh/Durham, via Baltimore, facilitating same-day return business travel.

Long Island MacArthur continued its perpetual search for airlines, while the airliners themselves continued their search for passengers and profitability in the shadow of the New York airports, as evidenced by the latest round of carrier entries and exits. Yet, despite losses between 2011 and 2014, with the $2 million one its largest in 2012, it ended 2017 with an almost $3 million surplus.

In the fiscal year from February 2017 to February of 2018, it recorded 6,473 aircraft departures, a 10.67-percent increase, 694,000 arriving passengers, a 17.28-percent increase, and 697,000 departing passengers, a 17.43-percent increase, according to DOT statistics. The number of nonstops served more than doubled, from seven to 15.

Like American Airlines in the 1970s, Northeastern International in the 1980s, and Southwest in the 1990s, Frontier could serve as the catalyst to the airport’s next development cycle, provided it can determine the markets that ensure its profitability and long-term presence.

Bannockburn: A Relaxed Location Offering a Short Chicago Commute

Illinois is a state filled with several industrial towns, an abundance of agriculture, and a significant amount of natural resources. The city of Chicago can be found in the Northeast region with agriculture dominating the central as well as northern portions of the state. Natural resources such as petroleum along with varying industries provide a widespread economy throughout Illinois. The state is also a transportation hub where ports in the Great Lakes area make their way through the St. Lawrence Seaway to portions of the Atlantic Ocean. The Mississippi and Illinois Rivers offer multiple transportation opportunities as well. There are many suburban areas to this large city, some are commonly referred to as the North Shore region. Real estate values in the area are above average, with a median resident age range of twenty one years. Household incomes typically range around two-hundred grand and are above average when compared to the state as a whole. There are advantageous locations to live near the Tri-State Tollway, making it a suitable commuting location for those working in or around the “Windy City.”

Lakes in the Area are Surrounded By Gorgeous Scenery

Smaller towns around the area may be less populated, but offer a unique business prospect due to its close vicinity to the main city. Companies choose these small suburban areas to have a laid back environment in combination with a short travel commute to manage large scale business transactions. The area is mainly populated with residential homes; however, several businesses have also decided to make this town their place of residence. Some locations provide stunning lake views and consist of modern architectural designs. Takeda is one of the top ranked pharmaceutical companies in the Nation, supplying numerous medications for blood sugar management, acid reflux, high blood pressure, sleep complications, and other conditions. This company calls one of these smaller suburban areas their corporate headquarters

There is a wonderful office plaza located near I-94, requiring only a short walk to reach a vicinity of accommodations, dining, and retail businesses. The plaza resides on sixty-six acres of land. It supplies vast trees, scenery, walking paths, and one-hundred thousand square feet of business space. This structure is just one example of the stunning beauty provided by many towns in this area. Nearby buildings include the Halsted Street Deli, Dominick’s, an athletic club, Panera Bread, the local school district, and additional businesses. Two major roads lead to Interstate-94 or the Tri-State Tollway, which takes commuters directly into the metropolitan region, as well as many surrounding neighborhoods. The Trinity International University, ball fields, and College Park Corporate Center are located next to the I-94 exit. A few parks may also be found in the general vicinity, with additional attractions available in nearby towns. The area provides a great environment for small business or family living by offering a serene location outside the larger metropolitan region.

RV Accessories and Parts – Make the MOST of your Camping TRIP!

Whether you are camping in Maryland, Illinois, Indiana, or Pennsylvania, owning a RV provides the necessary transportation for the perfect camping trip. A RV is basically a recreational vehicle which one uses when on vacation, and on long journeys while on the road. It provides a comfortable place to sleep and cook in while taking long journeys, and when camping with the family.

There are many RV accessories available for you to buy for use on your RV. First and foremost, you have to buy a protective RV cover for your RV, for protection from rain or shine. When the RV is not in use, it is preferred to have it covered with a protective cover so that the rain may not rust parts of the RV. Protective RV covers are usually found made of polypropylene that provides all weather protection.

Then you have fans that will help you fight the heat when in the RV. There are also circulation fans that can be used to not only provide cool air in the RV, but to also circulate the existing air in the RV. Then there are the compasses, drink holders, altimeters, cell phone holders, custom RV parts and many other accessories that the RV owner can do with. When speaking of custom RV parts, it includes the protective RV covers, awning mats, heat exchangers, water heaters, RV ice box, a / c, bulb, RV repair kit and the outdoor survival kit, among others.

All the custom RV parts can be easily availed from the local stores or by ordering through the internet. All that has to be done is to type the required custom RV part in any search engine wherein numerous sites selling the part will be disclosed. Place the order, make payments and just wait to try out the custom RV part on the RV on your next camping trip!

To receive a free copy of the 'Ultimate What to Take Camping List', visit Dependable Camping Equipment

Sam Jordan

How to Be Proactive About The Zika Virus

While the Zika virus has been around since 1947, it has not been recognized as a legitimate threat to the United States until quite recently. Zika is a potent virus that is carried by mosquitoes. Until 2007, the virus was limited only to Africa. Since then, it has spread to the South Pacific and into other tropical regions, such as the Caribbean. Zika is particularly concerning for pregnant women who may suffer birth anomalies, such as microcephaly, to their unborn children. However, it can also cause fevers, rashes, headaches and joint pain in anyone affected by it for up to one week.

Zika Transmission

Zika is transmitted by the bite of a mosquito. However, it can also be transferred between sexual partners. The species of mosquitoes that carry the virus include Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Currently, only A. aegypti has been spreading Zika in the United States; this species is mostly present in warmer states with more tropical climates. However, it can come as far north as Ohio in the Midwest and Connecticut along the Eastern seaboard. While A. albopictus can carry Zika, it has not been known to do so as of yet in the U.S.

The most recent information shows that the majority of Zika cases in the US are travel-related, meaning that they are due to a person having been bitten by an affected mosquito while traveling out of the country. The only place in the US that has been affected by locally-infected mosquitoes is a small area of Miami just north of the downtown district. Florida, Texas, California, Maryland, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and New York have all reported more than 200 cases each with well over 600 reported in Florida. States reporting between 50 to 100 cases include Georgia, Tennessee, North Carolina, Virginia, Ohio, Illinois and Michigan.

Being Proactive about Zika

Because Zika is spread by mosquitoes, it is vital that you learn how to prevent mosquito bites no matter where you live and particularly if you travel out of the US. You should be aware that virus-laden mosquitoes bite during both the day and the night. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend using insect repellents with high levels of EPA-registered active ingredients, such as DEET, Picaridin, oil of lemon eucalyptus, para-menthane-diol or IR3535. Some brand name examples of approved repellents include Off!, Cutter Advanced, Repel, and SkinSmart. These repellents are safe even for pregnant women to use as well as for all children over the age of two months. In addition, you will be best protected if you wear long sleeve shirts, long pants and repellent-treated shoes and socks when outdoors. In addition, cover baby carriers with netting to protect very young infants from being bitten.

The only other way that you could get Zika other than from a mosquito bite is from sexual contact with a person having the virus. To protect this type of transmission, always use a male or female condom during sexual intercourse. Condoms should be used during vaginal, anal and oral sex to prevent transmission from semen or vaginal fluids. Beware that a person may transmit the virus before any symptoms begin and even after symptoms end.

This is Only the Beginning of Zika

The United States government is maintaining a close monitoring system of Zika cases throughout the US as well as in Puerto Rico, the US Virgin Islands, and American Samoa. The local government of Miami has taken steps to contain and prevent future outbreaks by using aerial spraying in some neighborhoods. In addition, President Obama has asked Congress to approve emergency funding for vaccine development, virus testing and state and local financial aid.

The government does not believe that the mosquitoes carrying Zika will travel much farther north than they already are, which is in Florida and Texas. However, travel-related cases could expand if people do not take proper precautions when traveling. Locally-acquired cases are most likely in Texas and Florida although the mosquitoes that can carry Zika can go as far north as Iowa and New Hampshire and as far west as California.

Get Tested!

If you develop symptoms that are consistent with Zika or have traveled to a different country affected by the virus, you should be tested. In addition, if you had unprotected sex with a person who has or had Zika, your doctor may recommend testing. This is particularly important for pregnant women. Testing can be done using blood or urine samples. A test known as real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction testing, or rRT-PCR, can be done within two weeks following the start of symptoms. It can also be performed on pregnant women who currently have no symptoms but who traveled to an affected country.

While this new information about Zika should not be cause for panic, you should work consistently to prevent transmission of the virus by preventing mosquito bites and by practicing protected sex using condoms.

Where to Find OMC Repair Parts and Service Videos

When Outboard Marine Corporation (OMC) filed for bankruptcy in December 2000, it left many people wondering where they would be able to get OMC parts. Fortunately, a number of suppliers have stepped in to fill the void and you can now get replacement OMC parts and some suppliers provide detailed OMC service videos as well.

What happened to OMC?

Outboard Marine Corporation was a multibillion corporation that was the manufacturer of the Evinrude, Johnson and Gale outboard motors and that also owned several boat manufacturers, including Javelin, Lowe Boats and Chris Craft.

The company was formed in 1929 when the Elto Outdoor Motor Company merged with Lockwood-Ash Motor Company, but the company didn’t start using the name OMC until 1956.

Based in Waukegan, Illinois, OMC became the biggest manufacturer of outboard motors in the world and they were the second largest manufacturer of powerboats. Particularly famous for its brand names of Johnson and Evinrude outboard motors and Chris-Craft and Grumman Powerboats, OMC began to struggle in the late 1980s, partly as a result of fierce competition from their arch-rival Brunswick Corporation.

It was a series of events, however, beginning in the late 1970s, which eventually culminated in the demise of OMC.

The first thing to hit OMC was questions being raised with regards to the impact that the company was having on the environment. This first began with accusation in 1976 that the company polluted Waukegan Harbor, which led to OMC being forced to fund a trust responsible for the cleaning up of the lake. Problems for OMC then began to mount in 1980 when sales plummeted after the Department of Energy, in response to fuel shortages, proposed that boating would be banned on weekends.

In the late 1980s, the boat market reached its peak and then took a rapid nosedive. OMC continued to purchase boat companies in an attempt to maintain demand of its outboard engines and it continued to launch new models, such as Evinrude Spitfire and the Johnson Silver-Star series, but the company continued to lose money.

Ultimately, with the company in financial turmoil, facing stiff competition in Europe from Japanese competitors, and having to release new models in order to comply with new, tougher, EPA guidelines, OMC began to make a series of layoffs and plant closures that spelled the beginning of the end for the company.

OMC filed for bankruptcy in December 2000, and the Johnson and Evinrude brands were bought by Bombardier Recreational Products. The boat division of OMC was purchased by Genmar Holdings of Minnesota.

Where to get help repairing and maintain OMC motors

When OMC closed, there were concerns about how boat owners would be able to continue to maintain and repair their OMC outboard motors, where they would get OMC repair parts from, and how they would be able to source OMC Service Videos and guides. However, with so many OMC motors in circulation, it wasn’t long before independent suppliers and boating enthusiasts started to put their own OMC service and repair videos online and OMC parts became available. It is those suppliers that are now the best place to source OMC aftermarket Sterndrive repair parts and videos.

Staying Safe and Having Fun in the City of Chicago

Chicago is a fun place to stay and visit. There are a variety of attractions that you can visit which are sure to please just about anyone. While you are out on the town in Chicago, just remember to keep yourself safe. Winding up at the emergency room at the local Illinois hospital is probably not how you want to spend your vacation.

A great way to start off your trip to Chicago is to visit the Willis Tower (formerly the Sears Tower). The Willis Tower is 108 stories tall. When it was completed in 1973 it was the tallest building in the world. Since then taller buildings have been built throughout the world, but the Willis Tower still remains the tallest building in the United States. There is an observation deck located on the 103rd floor of the tower. If you have already been to the Skydeck observation deck, now is the time to go back. On July 2, 2009 glass balconies that extend four feet over Wacker Drive from the 103rd floor opened to the public. These balconies are made completely of glass that allow you to look straight down to the street over a thousand feet below you. Just remember to take care on your journey skyward; you don’t want to miss the view because you were checked into one of the hospitals in IL.

If you have kids that are a little older, finding something to entertain them can become challenging. A visit to the Medieval Times Dinner & Tournament is the answer to your dilemma. This event is sure to inspire a good time. They will be served barbecued ribs and roast chicken that they get to eat with their fingers. The show will feature jousting matches with knights riding on beautiful horses. Each section of the audience cheers for a different knight. If you eat too much food or get too caught up in the jousting, there are plenty of Chicago south west suburbs physicians to help.

If art is more your speed, there are several different options there as well. If you are more into architecture type art, then you should visit the Frank Lloyd Wright Home and Studio. The Home and Studio served as Wrights’ private residence and workplace from 1889 to 1909. This building was restored to its 1909 appearance, the last year Wright lived on the property. The Art Institute of Chicago is also a great place to go if you would like to see some spectacular art on display.

Chicago Attractions- Brookfield Zoo

If you will be in Chicago you must visit one place. That place is the Brookfield Zoo. I know, it technically is not in Chicago and should not technically be called a Chicago attraction but since it is only a few miles to the west of Chicago I think it qualifies. Keep reading this article and learn what makes the Brookfield Zoo noteworthy and worth seeing.

The Brookfield Zoo which opened its doors to the public in 1934 is made up of 216 beautifully landscaped and designed acres. It is home to more than 2000 different animals which live in a landscape that uses natural barriers instead of cages. Its use of these natural barriers makes it more of a realistic experience for visitors and for the residents of the zoo and has earned the zoo world recognition. The Brookfield Zoo also earned recognition as the first one in the country to host a Giant Panda exhibit. When you get there you will find a number of different exhibits to tour. There is the Australia House, the Baboon Island, the Wolf Woods, the Pachyderm House and many many more that are guaranteed to please and excite any visitor. If you have small children, be sure to take them to the Petting Zoo and the Play Zoo. There they will be able to see and experience the animals much more closely. It will be an experience they and you will cherish. The zoo is also home to a number of great seasonal attractions so be sure to check with them to see what they will be doing in the future.

If you would like to visit the zoo you can find it at 3300 Golf Road in Brookfield Illinois. Be sure to call the zoo’s information line at 708-485-0263 to get current ticket prices and hours before you go. I am sure that once you visit the zoo you will return often and you will know what makes it one of Chicago’s best attractions.

A Brief History of Bensenville, IL

Bensenville is a village in Cook and DuPage counties of Illinois. A portion of this village is located near O’Hare International Airport, making worldwide air travel convenient. From its population to its buildings, Bensenville is truly diverse, making it an interesting place to visit or live. Incorporated in the late 1800s, this village has a long and interesting history.

The Beginnings of Bensenville, IL

More than 18,000 people now call Bensenville home but this village was once a wild prairie occupied by the Potawatomie Indians. Signed in 1833, the Treaty of Chicago forced this tribe out of Northern Illinois and the first settlers arrived in Dunklee’s Grove in Addison Township later that year, followed by 12 families from Germany. Much of Dunklee’s Grove is now in Bensenville.

At the time, Chicago consisted of only 160 frame buildings. Becoming a land owner required only selecting a strip of land, plowing a furrow around it, building a log hut on the property, and providing written ownership declaration to a Chicago land agency. The first local settlers used resources provided by the land to build houses, farms, churches, and schools.

In 1873, the plot of land that became the village was officially recorded, called Tioga. The Village of Bensenville was incorporated in 1884, with George Cogswell as its first president. School District 2 formed in 1885 and the first school was built the following year on Green Street. In 1894, the Bensenville Volunteer Fire Department was organized.

Bensenville, IL, Gets Connected

The first telephone was installed in the village in 1902 and just two years later, 64 residents had telephones. In 1910, electricity arrived, shedding new light on the village. The railroad became a major employer in the early 1900s and by 1930, 27 freight trains and 52 passenger trains were passing through the village each day. As the population grew, more schools were built, with the first high school class graduating in 1926.

By 1940, the population was 1,875 and once Douglas Aircraft plant was constructed in 1943, 40 percent of the local workforce was employed there. Manufacturers flocked to Bensenville and by 1960, eight major industries had moved to this village. The same year, the Park and Community Public Library Districts were created. Just one year after the village celebrated its centennial, it received a water park and historical commission. This village is proud of its past but is also looking toward the future and the opportunities it holds.